Alerts in Africa
South Africa has recorded 2 positive cases of diphtheria disease. The 1st case was an adult in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), and the 2nd case was a child in the Western Cape. Diphtheria antitoxin is in short supply globally, and the World Health Organization (WHO) is working towards securing additional supply. The infection is treated with the appropriate antibiotics and supportive care in the absence of the antitoxin
Between 23 March 2023 and 13 April 2023, a total of 91 HEV suspected cases have been reported from Wau, of which 35 are confirmed; there have been five deaths reported
In Equatorial Guinea, from 13 February to 1 May 2023, 17 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases and 23 probable cases have been reported. Among the laboratory-confirmed cases, there are 12 deaths (Case Fatality Ratio 75%). The most affected district is Bata in Litoral province. In Tanzania, between 16 March to 30 April 2023, a cumulative total of 9 cases including 8 laboratory-confirmed cases and 1 probable case have been reported. (CFR 66.7%). All cases have been reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region.
On March 21, 2023, Tanzania declared an outbreak of Marburg virus disease. Confirmed cases have been reported in the Kagera Region
As of 16 March 2023, confirmed cases have been reported from all provinces; eight out of nine South African provinces have declared measles outbreaks1. No deaths associated with measles have been recorded. Most cases (86%) are reported among those aged under 14 years.
From 1 January 2021 to 7 December 2022, a total of 203 confirmed and 252 probable cases with 40 deaths (Case Fatality Ratio 9%) were reported to WHO from 13 countries in the WHO African Region.
Dengue is an ongoing risk of dengue in many parts of Africa and the Middle East, and some countries are reporting higher-than-usual numbers of dengue cases. Travelers to areas of risk should protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites.
There are outbreaks and increased number of measles cases in several African countries
Uganda´s health ministry today reported 14 more lab-confirmed Ebola cases, pushing the outbreak total to 109. Health officials also reported 2 more deaths, raising the total to 30.
Between 30 August and 17 October 2022, a total of 47 confirmed cases of Rift Valley fever (RVF), mostly among animal breeders, including 23 deaths, have been reported from nine of Mauritania’s 15 wilayas (regions).
The Ministry of Health of Uganda has declared an Ebola outbreak in several districts in Uganda. This outbreak has been linked to the Sudan ebolavirus. No vaccines or therapeutics have been approved for prevention or treatment of the Sudan ebolavirus.
Situation at a glance Yellow fever is endemic in the WHO African Region and was among the top five most frequently reported events in the region in 2019 and 2020. Twenty-seven countries in Africa have been classified as high-risk by the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) global strategy. From 1 January 2021 to 26 August 2022, a total of 12 countries in the region have reported 184 confirmed cases and 274 probable cases, including 21 deaths, reflecting ongoing complex viral transmission. Risk factors for onward spread and amplification include low population immunity, population movements, viral transmission dynamics, and climate and ecological factors that have contributed to the spread of Aedes mosquitoes. Response measures, most notably reactive and preventive vaccination campaigns, are ongoing in the affected countries. Since the beginning of 2021, over 3.9 million people have been vaccinated through reactive vaccination campaigns in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ghana, and Kenya. Description of outbreaks In 2021, nine African countries - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Republic of the Congo - reported a total of 151 confirmed cases of yellow fever (for more details, please see the Disease Outbreak News published on 23 December 20211). Of these nine countries, six continue to report confirmed cases of yellow fever with ongoing transmission in 2022, while Côte d´Ivoire and Nigeria have reported probable cases2 and Gabon has not reported further cases since 2021. In 2022, two additional countries, Kenya3 and Uganda4, have reported confirmed cases of yellow fever. From 1 January to 26 August 2022, a total of 33 confirmed cases of yellow fever were reported from eight African countries including Central African Republic (33%, 11 cases), Cameroon (24%, eight cases), Democratic Republic of Congo (13%, four cases), Kenya (9%, three cases), Chad (6%, two cases), Republic of the Congo (6%, two cases), Uganda (6%, two cases), and Ghana (3%, one case). Ten countries - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, and Republic of the Congo - have also reported a total of 274 probable cases of yellow fever from 1 January 2021 to 26 August 2022 (Table 1). The majority of cases over the entire period were reported in the last quarter of 2021 (Figure 1), with Ghana reporting around 33% of all confirmed cases. Of 184 confirmed cases, 73% are aged 30 years and below, and the male-to-female ratio is 1.2. The case count and the number of outbreaks are anticipated to continue evolving as the Region enters the seasonal period when there is often an increase in cases notified. Figure 1. Probable and confirmed cases of yellow fever by week of symptom onset in countries reporting transmission in the WHO African Region, 1 January 2021 to 26 August 2022.